In previous articles, we have discussed the application of silicon carbide in the semiconductor industry. Today we will systematically learn about the manufacturing process and difficulties of silicon carbide wafers.
Silicon carbide wafer is a type of semiconductor device that, compared to traditional silicon, has excellent characteristics such as wide bandgap, fast drift speed, high breakdown voltage, high thermal conductivity, and high-temperature resistance.
Based on these characteristics, silicon carbide wafer is mainly used in extreme environments such as electronics, aerospace, military, and nuclear energy.
In the fields of LED solid-state lighting and high-frequency devices, silicon carbide wafer also has wide applications. Some markets with huge development potential, such as the backlight market for smartphones and laptops, also have a huge growth demand for silicon carbide crystals.
New energy vehicles,
power systems, etc
Semi insulated type
Microwave RF devices
Silicon carbide single crystal is a third-generation high-temperature wide bandgap semiconductor material with broad market application prospects, including black silicon carbide and green silicon carbide.
In the production of silicon carbide wafers, the substrate is the most crucial link in the silicon carbide industry chain, directly determining the application output of silicon carbide. Moreover, data shows that the cost of substrates accounts for approximately 50% of the entire preparation process.
A. Preparation of raw materials
Prepare high-purity silicon powder and high-purity carbon powder as raw materials.
B. Crystal growth technology
1. PTV method: Physical Vapor Transport, using the principle of gas phase transfer, transfers the raw materials in the gas phase to the low-temperature growth area under high-temperature conditions, allowing crystals to deposit and form in the growth area. This method is usually carried out in a closed reaction chamber, which includes the source material and growth substrate.
2. CVD method: Chemical Vapor Deposition. The CVD method utilizes chemical reactions in the gas phase to form thin films of solid materials. This process is usually carried out in high-temperature environments, and the deposition of thin films can be achieved by controlling the concentration of reactants and reaction conditions in the gas phase.
C. Ingot processing: The obtained silicon carbide ingots are oriented using an X-ray single crystal orientation instrument, then ground flat, rolled, and processed into standard diameter silicon carbide crystal.
D. Crystal cutting: Use multi-wire cutting equipment to cut silicon carbide crystalinto thin sheets with a thickness not exceeding 1mm.
E. Crystal grinding: Grinding crystalto the required flatness and roughness using diamond grinding fluids with different particle sizes.
F. Crystal polishing: obtaining surface undamaged silicon carbide polishing sheets through mechanical polishing and chemical mechanical polishing methods.
G. Crystal cleaning: Clean silicon carbide polishing wafer with cleaning agents and pure water to remove residual polishing solution and other surface contaminants on the polishing. Then, use ultra-high purity nitrogen gas and a spin dryer to blow and spin dry the wafer.
Hardness of silicon carbide:
Because silicon carbide is harder than ordinary materials and has high wear resistance, it increases the risk of tool wear during cutting and polishing processes.
The rate of crystal growth:
The growth rate of silicon carbide crystal is influenced by temperature and pressure, making it a relatively complex process.
Costs and resources:
Processing silicon carbide wafers involves high temperatures, highly specialized equipment, and advanced materials, which can lead to an increase in manufacturing costs.
In addition: the larger the crystal size, the greater the difficulty of crystal growth and processing technology, while the manufacturing efficiency and unit cost of downstream devices are higher.
Silicon carbide wafers are widely used in the field of power electronics to manufacture high-performance power devices, such as power inverters and rectifiers.
Application: Silicon carbide is used as a substrate for LED (light-emitting diode), used to manufacture high brightness and high-efficiency LED devices.
Application: Silicon carbide wafers are used in semiconductor manufacturing to manufacture high-performance diodes, MOSFETs, and other semiconductor devices.
Application: Silicon carbide wafers are used in electric vehicles to manufacture power electronic devices, such as battery management systems and motor controllers.
Application: Silicon carbide is used in microelectronics to manufacture microsensors, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and other microelectronic components.
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